Prisma allows configuration of database indexes, unique constraints and primary key constraints. This is in General Availability in versions 4.0.0 and later. You can enable this with the extendedIndexes Preview feature in versions 3.5.0 and later.

Version 3.6.0 also introduces support for introspection and migration of full text indexes in MySQL and MongoDB through a new @@fulltext attribute, available through the fullTextIndex Preview feature.

If you are upgrading from a version earlier than 4.0.0, these changes to index configuration and full text indexes might be breaking changes if you have a database that already uses these features. See Upgrading from previous versions for more information on how to upgrade.

Index configuration

You can configure indexes, unique constraints, and primary key constraints with the following attribute arguments:

  • The length argument is available in MySQL only on the @id, @@id, @unique, @@unique and @@index attributes in version 3.5.0 and later. It allows Prisma to support indexes and constraints on String and Bytes types.

  • The sort argument is available for all databases on the @unique, @@unique and @@index attributes in version 3.5.0 and later. Additionally, SQL Server also allows it on @id and @@id.

  • The type argument is available in PostgreSQL only on the @@index attribute in version 3.6.0 and later. This argument allows Prisma to support the Hash index access method as well as the default BTree access method. In version 3.14.0 and later the Gist, Gin, SpGist and Brin access methods are also available.

  • The clustered argument is available in SQL Server only on the @id, @@id, @unique, @@unique and @@index attribute in version 3.13.0 and later. It allows Prisma to configure (non)clustered indexes.

Configuring the length of indexes with length (MySQL)

The length argument is specific to MySQL and allows you to define indexes and constraints on columns of String and Byte types. For these types, MySQL requires you to specify a maximum length for the subpart of the value to be indexed in cases where the full value would exceed MySQL's limits for index sizes. See the MySQL documentation for more details.

The length argument is available on the @id, @@id, @unique, @@unique and @@index attributes.

As an example, the following data model declares an id field with a maximum length of 3000 characters:

schema.prisma
1model Id {
2 id String @id @db.VarChar(3000)
3}

This is not valid in MySQL because it exceeds MySQL's index storage limit and therefore Prisma rejects the data model. The generated SQL would be rejected by the database.

CREATE TABLE `Id` (
`id` VARCHAR(3000) PRIMARY KEY
)

The length argument allows you to specify that only a subpart of the id value represents the primary key. In the example below, the first 100 characters are used:

schema.prisma
1model Id {
2 id String @id(length: 100) @db.VarChar(3000)
3}

Prisma Migrate is able to create constraints and indexes with the length argument if specified in your data model. This means that you can create indexes and constraints on values of Prisma type Byte and String. If you don't specify the argument the index is treated as covering the full value as before.

Introspection will fetch these limits where they are present in your existing database. This allows Prisma to support indexes and constraints that were previously suppressed and results in better support of existing MySQL databases that are making use of this feature.

The length argument can also be used on compound primary keys, using the @@id attribute, as in the example below:

schema.prisma
1model CompoundId {
2 id_1 String @db.VarChar(3000)
3 id_2 String @db.VarChar(3000)
4
5 @@id([id_1(length: 100),id_2(length: 10)])
6}

A similar syntax can be used for the @@unique and @@index attributes.

Configuring the index sort order with sort

The sort argument is available for all databases supported by Prisma. It allows you to specify the order that the entries of the index or constraint are stored in the database. This can have an effect on whether the database is able to use an index for specific queries.

The sort argument is available for all databases on @unique, @@unique and @@index. Additionally, SQL Server also allows it on @id and @@id.

As an example, the following table

CREATE TABLE `Unique` (
`unique` INT,
CONSTRAINT `Unique_unique_key` UNIQUE (`unique` DESC)
)

is now introspected as

schema.prisma
1model Unique {
2 unique Int @unique(sort: Desc)
3}

The sort argument can also be used on compound indexes:

schema.prisma
1model CompoundUnique {
2 unique_1 Int
3 unique_2 Int
4
5 @@unique([unique_1(sort: Desc), unique_2])
6}

Example: using sort and length together

The following example demonstrates the use of the sort and length arguments to configure indexes and constraints for a Post model:

schema.prisma
1model Post {
2 title String @db.VarChar(300)
3 abstract String @db.VarChar(3000)
4 slug String @unique(sort: Desc, length: 42) @db.VarChar(3000)
5 author String
6 created_at DateTime
7
8 @@id([title(length: 100, sort: Desc), abstract(length: 10)])
9 @@index([author, created_at(sort: Desc)])
10}

Configuring the access type of indexes with type (PostgreSQL)

The type argument is available for configuring the index type in PostgreSQL, with the @@index attribute (version 3.6.0 and later). This allows you to use Hash as the index access method, instead of the default BTree access method. In version 3.14.0 and later, the Gist, Gin, SpGist and Brin index types provide additional access methods.

Hash

The Hash type will store the index data in a format that is much faster to search and insert, and that will use less disk space. However, only the = and <> comparisons can use the index, so other comparison operators such as < and > will be much slower with Hash than when using the default BTree type.

As an example, the following model adds an index with a type of Hash to the value field:

schema.prisma
1model Example {
2 id Int @id
3 value Int
4
5 @@index([value], type: Hash)
6}

This translates to the following SQL commands:

CREATE TABLE "Example" (
id INT PRIMARY KEY,
value INT NOT NULL
);
CREATE INDEX "Example_value_idx" ON "Example" USING HASH (value);

Generalized Inverted Index (GIN)

The GIN index stores composite values, such as arrays or JsonB data. This is useful for speeding up querying whether one object is part of another object. It is commonly used for full-text searches.

An indexed field can define the operator class, which defines the operators handled by the index.

Indexes using a function (such as to_tsvector) to determine the indexed value are not yet supported by Prisma. Indexes defined in this way will not be visible with prisma db pull.

As an example, the following model adds a Gin index to the value field, with JsonbPathOps as the class of operators allowed to use the index:

schema.prisma
1model Example {
2 id Int @id
3 value Json
4 // ^ field type matching the operator class
5
6 @@index([value(ops: JsonbPathOps)], type: Gin)
7 // ^ operator class ^ index type
8}

This translates to the following SQL commands:

CREATE TABLE "Example" (
id INT PRIMARY KEY,
value JSONB NOT NULL
);
CREATE INDEX "Example_value_idx" ON "Example" USING GIN (value jsonb_path_ops);

As part of the JsonbPathOps the @> operator is handled by the index, speeding up queries such as value @> '{"foo": 2}'.

Supported Operator Classes for GIN

Prisma generally supports operator classes provided by PostgreSQL in versions 10 and later. If the operator class requires the field type to be of a type Prisma does not yet support, using the raw function with a string input allows you to use these operator classes without validation.

The default operator class (marked with ✅) can be omitted from the index definition.

Operator classAllowed field type (native types)DefaultOther
ArrayOpsAny arrayAlso available in CockroachDB
JsonbOpsJson (@db.JsonB)Also available in CockroachDB
JsonbPathOpsJson (@db.JsonB)
raw("other")

Read more about built-in operator classes in the official PostgreSQL documentation.

CockroachDB

GIN and BTree are the only index types supported by CockroachDB. The operator classes marked to work with CockroachDB are the only ones allowed on that database and supported by Prisma. The operator class cannot be defined in the Prisma Schema Language: the ops argument is not necessary or allowed on CockroachDB.

Generalized Search Tree (GiST)

The GiST index type is used for implementing indexing schemes for user-defined types. By default there are not many direct uses for GiST indexes, but for example the B-Tree index type is built using a GiST index.

As an example, the following model adds a Gist index to the value field with InetOps as the operators that will be using the index:

schema.prisma
1model Example {
2 id Int @id
3 value String @db.Inet
4 // ^ native type matching the operator class
5
6 @@index([value(ops: InetOps)], type: Gist)
7 // ^ index type
8 // ^ operator class
9}

This translates to the following SQL commands:

CREATE TABLE "Example" (
id INT PRIMARY KEY,
value INET NOT NULL
);
CREATE INDEX "Example_value_idx" ON "Example" USING GIST (value inet_ops);

Queries comparing IP addresses, such as value > '10.0.0.2', will use the index.

Supported Operator Classes for GiST

Prisma generally supports operator classes provided by PostgreSQL in versions 10 and later. If the operator class requires the field type to be of a type Prisma does not yet support, using the raw function with a string input allows you to use these operator classes without validation.

Operator classAllowed field type (allowed native types)
InetOpsString (@db.Inet)
raw("other")

Read more about built-in operator classes in the official PostgreSQL documentation.

Space-Partitioned GiST (SP-GiST)

The SP-GiST index is a good choice for many different non-balanced data structures. If the query matches the partitioning rule, it can be very fast.

As with GiST, SP-GiST is important as a building block for user-defined types, allowing implementation of custom search operators directly with the database.

As an example, the following model adds a SpGist index to the value field with TextOps as the operators using the index:

schema.prisma
1model Example {
2 id Int @id
3 value String
4 // ^ field type matching the operator class
5
6 @@index([value], type: SpGist)
7 // ^ index type
8 // ^ using the default ops: TextOps
9}

This translates to the following SQL commands:

CREATE TABLE "Example" (
id INT PRIMARY KEY,
value TEXT NOT NULL
);
CREATE INDEX "Example_value_idx" ON "Example" USING SPGIST (value);

Queries such as value LIKE 'something%' will be sped up by the index.

Supported Operator Classes for SP-GiST

Prisma generally supports operator classes provided by PostgreSQL in versions 10 and later. If the operator class requires the field type to be of a type Prisma does not yet support, using the raw function with a string input allows you to use these operator classes without validation.

The default operator class (marked with ✅) can be omitted from the index definition.

Operator classAllowed field type (native types)DefaultSupported PostgreSQL versions
InetOpsString (@db.Inet)10+
TextOpsString (@db.Text, @db.VarChar)
raw("other")

Read more about built-in operator classes from official PostgreSQL documentation.

Block Range Index (BRIN)

The BRIN index type is useful if you have lots of data that does not change after it is inserted, such as date and time values. If your data is a good fit for the index, it can store large datasets in a minimal space.

As an example, the following model adds a Brin index to the value field with Int4BloomOps as the operators that will be using the index:

schema.prisma
1model Example {
2 id Int @id
3 value Int
4 // ^ field type macthing the operator class
5
6 @@index([value(ops: Int4BloomOps)], type: Brin)
7 // ^ operator class ^ index type
8}

This translates to the following SQL commands:

CREATE TABLE "Example" (
id INT PRIMARY KEY,
value INT4 NOT NULL
);
CREATE INDEX "Example_value_idx" ON "Example" USING BRIN (value int4_bloom_ops);

Queries like value = 2 will now use the index, which uses a fraction of the space used by the BTree or Hash indexes.

Supported Operator Classes for BRIN

Prisma generally supports operator classes provided by PostgreSQL in versions 10 and later, and some supported operators are only available from PostgreSQL versions 14 and later. If the operator class requires the field type to be of a type Prisma does not yet support, using the raw function with a string input allows you to use these operator classes without validation.

The default operator class (marked with ✅) can be omitted from the index definition.

Operator classAllowed field type (native types)DefaultSupported PostgreSQL versions
BitMinMaxOpsString (@db.Bit)
VarBitMinMaxOpsString (@db.VarBit)
BpcharBloomOpsString (@db.Char)14+
BpcharMinMaxOpsString (@db.Char)
ByteaBloomOpsBytes (@db.Bytea)14+
ByteaMinMaxOpsBytes (@db.Bytea)
DateBloomOpsDateTime (@db.Date)14+
DateMinMaxOpsDateTime (@db.Date)
DateMinMaxMultiOpsDateTime (@db.Date)14+
Float4BloomOpsFloat (@db.Real)14+
Float4MinMaxOpsFloat (@db.Real)
Float4MinMaxMultiOpsFloat (@db.Real)14+
Float8BloomOpsFloat (@db.DoublePrecision)14+
Float8MinMaxOpsFloat (@db.DoublePrecision)
Float8MinMaxMultiOpsFloat (@db.DoublePrecision)14+
InetInclusionOpsString (@db.Inet)14+
InetBloomOpsString (@db.Inet)14+
InetMinMaxOpsString (@db.Inet)
InetMinMaxMultiOpsString (@db.Inet)14+
Int2BloomOpsInt (@db.SmallInt)14+
Int2MinMaxOpsInt (@db.SmallInt)
Int2MinMaxMultiOpsInt (@db.SmallInt)14+
Int4BloomOpsInt (@db.Integer)14+
Int4MinMaxOpsInt (@db.Integer)
Int4MinMaxMultiOpsInt (@db.Integer)14+
Int8BloomOpsBigInt (@db.BigInt)14+
Int8MinMaxOpsBigInt (@db.BigInt)
Int8MinMaxMultiOpsBigInt (@db.BigInt)14+
NumericBloomOpsDecimal (@db.Decimal)14+
NumericMinMaxOpsDecimal (@db.Decimal)
NumericMinMaxMultiOpsDecimal (@db.Decimal)14+
OidBloomOpsInt (@db.Oid)14+
OidMinMaxOpsInt (@db.Oid)
OidMinMaxMultiOpsInt (@db.Oid)14+
TextBloomOpsString (@db.Text, @db.VarChar)14+
TextMinMaxOpsString (@db.Text, @db.VarChar)
TextMinMaxMultiOpsString (@db.Text, @db.VarChar)14+
TimestampBloomOpsDateTime (@db.Timestamp)14+
TimestampMinMaxOpsDateTime (@db.Timestamp)
TimestampMinMaxMultiOpsDateTime (@db.Timestamp)14+
TimestampTzBloomOpsDateTime (@db.Timestamptz)14+
TimestampTzMinMaxOpsDateTime (@db.Timestamptz)
TimestampTzMinMaxMultiOpsDateTime (@db.Timestamptz)14+
TimeBloomOpsDateTime (@db.Time)14+
TimeMinMaxOpsDateTime (@db.Time)
TimeMinMaxMultiOpsDateTime (@db.Time)14+
TimeTzBloomOpsDateTime (@db.Timetz)14+
TimeTzMinMaxOpsDateTime (@db.Timetz)
TimeTzMinMaxMultiOpsDateTime (@db.Timetz)14+
UuidBloomOpsString (@db.Uuid)14+
UuidMinMaxOpsString (@db.Uuid)
UuidMinMaxMultiOpsString (@db.Uuid)14+
raw("other")

Read more about built-in operator classes in the official PostgreSQL documentation.

Configuring if indexes are clustered or non-clustered with clustered (SQL Server)

The clustered argument is available to configure (non)clustered indexes in SQL Server in version 3.13.0 and later. It can be used on @id, @@id, @unique, @@unique and @@index attributes.

As an example, the following model configures the @id to be non-clustered (instead of the clustered default):

schema.prisma
1model Example {
2 id Int @id(clustered: false)
3 value Int
4}

This translates to the following SQL commands:

CREATE TABLE [Example] (
id INT NOT NULL,
value INT,
CONSTRAINT [Example_pkey] PRIMARY KEY NONCLUSTERED (id)
)

The default value of clustered for each attribute is as follows:

AttributeValue
@idtrue
@@idtrue
@uniquefalse
@@uniquefalse
@@indexfalse

A table can have at most one clustered index.

Upgrading from previous versions

These index configuration changes can be breaking changes when activating the functionality for certain, existing Prisma schemas for existing databases. After enabling the preview features required to use them, run prisma db pull to introspect the existing database to update your Prisma schema before using Prisma Migrate again.

A breaking change can occur in the following situations:

  • Existing sort constraints and indexes: earlier versions of Prisma will assume that the desired sort order is ascending if no order is specified explicitly. This means that this is a breaking change if you have existing constraints or indexes that are using descending sort order and migrate your database without first specifying this in your data model.
  • Existing length constraints and indexes: in earlier versions of Prisma, indexes and constaints that were length constrained in MySQL could not be represented in the Prisma schema. Therefore prisma db pull was not fetching these and you could not manually specify them. When you ran prisma db push or prisma migrate dev they were ignored if already present in your database. Since you are now able to specify these, migrate commands will now drop them if they are missing from your data model but present in the database.
  • Existing hash indexes (PostgreSQL): earlier versions of Prisma did not support hash indexes in the schema. These need to be added before migrating your database.
  • Existing (non-)clustered indexes (SQL Server): earlier versions of Prisma did not support configuring an index as clustered or non-clustered. For indexes that do not use the default, these need to be added before migrating your database.

In each of the cases above unwanted changes to your database can be prevented by properly specifying these properties in your data model where necessary. The easiest way to do this is to use prisma db pull to retrieve any existing constraints or configuration. Alternatively, you could also add these arguments manually. This should be done before using prisma db push or prisma migrate dev the first time after the upgrade.

Full text indexes (MySQL and MongoDB)

The fullTextIndex preview feature provides support for introspection and migration of full text indexes in MySQL and MongoDB in version 3.6.0 and later. This can be configured using the @@fulltext attribute. Existing full text indexes in the database are added to your Prisma schema after introspecting with db pull, and new full text indexes added in the Prisma schema are created in the database when using Prisma Migrate. This also prevents validation errors in some database schemas that were not working before.

For now we do not enable the full text search commands in the Prisma Client for MongoDB; the progress can be followed in the MongoDB issue.

Enabling the fullTextIndex preview feature

To enable the fullTextIndex preview feature, add the fullTextIndex feature flag to the generator block of the schema.prisma file:

schema.prisma
1generator client {
2 provider = "prisma-client-js"
3 previewFeatures = ["fullTextIndex"]
4}

Examples

The following example demonstrates adding a @@fulltext index to the title and content fields of a Post model:

schema.prisma
1model Post {
2 id Int @id
3 title String @db.VarChar(255)
4 content String @db.Text
5
6 @@fulltext([title, content])
7}

On MongoDB, you can use the @@fulltext index attribute (via the fullTextIndex preview feature) with the sort argument to add fields to your full-text index in ascending or descending order. The following example adds a @@fulltext index to the title and content fields of the Post model, and sorts the title field in descending order:

schema.prisma
1generator js {
2 provider = "prisma-client-js"
3 previewFeatures = ["fullTextIndex"]
4}
5
6datasource db {
7 provider = "mongodb"
8 url = env("DATABASE_URL")
9}
10
11model Post {
12 id String @id @map("_id") @db.ObjectId
13 title String
14 content String
15
16 @@fulltext([title(sort: Desc), content])
17}

Upgrading from previous versions

This can be a breaking change when activating the functionality for certain, existing Prisma schemas for existing databases. After enabling the preview features required to use them, run prisma db pull to introspect the existing database to update your Prisma schema before using Prisma Migrate again.

Earlier versions of Prisma converted full text indexes using the @@index attribute rather than the @@fulltext attribute. After enabling the fullTextIndex preview feature, run prisma db pull to convert these indexes to @@fulltext before migrating again with Prisma Migrate. If you do not do this, the existing indexes will be dropped instead and normal indexes will be created in their place.

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