Prisma CLI reference

This document describes the Prisma CLI commands, arguments, and options.

Synopsis

The prisma command can be called from command line once installed. When called without arguments, it will display its command usage and help document:

$prisma
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Prisma is a modern DB toolkit to query, migrate and model your database (https://prisma.io)
Usage
$ prisma [command]
Commands
init Setup Prisma for your app
generate Generate artifacts (e.g. Prisma Client)
db Manage your database schema and lifecycle
migrate Migrate your database
studio Browse your data with Prisma Studio
format Format your schema
Flags
--preview-feature Run Preview Prisma commands
Examples
Setup a new Prisma project
$ prisma init
Generate artifacts (e.g. Prisma Client)
$ prisma generate
Browse your data
$ prisma studio
Create migrations from your Prisma schema, apply them to the database, generate artifacts (e.g. Prisma Client)
$ prisma migrate dev
Pull the schema from an existing database, updating the Prisma schema
$ prisma db pull
Push the Prisma schema state to the database
$ prisma db push

You can get additional help on any of the prisma commands by adding the --help flag after the command.

Commands

version (-v)

The version command outputs information about your current prisma version, platform, and engine binaries.

Options

The version command recognizes the following options to modify its behavior:

OptionRequiredDescription
--jsonNoOutputs version information in JSON format.

Examples

Output version information
$prisma version
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Environment variables loaded from ./prisma/.env
prisma : 2.21.0-dev.4
@prisma/client : 2.21.0-dev.4
Current platform : windows
Query Engine : query-engine 2fb8f444d9cdf7c0beee7b041194b42d7a9ce1e6 (at C:\Users\veroh\AppData\Roaming\npm\node_modules\@prisma\cli\query-engine-windows.exe)
Migration Engine : migration-engine-cli 2fb8f444d9cdf7c0beee7b041194b42d7a9ce1e6 (at C:\Users\veroh\AppData\Roaming\npm\node_modules\@prisma\cli\migration-engine-windows.exe)
Introspection Engine : introspection-core 2fb8f444d9cdf7c0beee7b041194b42d7a9ce1e6 (at C:\Users\veroh\AppData\Roaming\npm\node_modules\@prisma\cli\introspection-engine-windows.exe)
Format Binary : prisma-fmt 60ba6551f29b17d7d6ce479e5733c70d9c00860e (at node_modules\@prisma\engines\prisma-fmt-windows.exe)
Default Engines Hash : 60ba6551f29b17d7d6ce479e5733c70d9c00860e
Studio : 0.365.0
Output version information (-v)
$prisma -v
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Environment variables loaded from ./prisma/.env
prisma : 2.21.0-dev.4
@prisma/client : 2.21.0-dev.4
Current platform : windows
Query Engine : query-engine 2fb8f444d9cdf7c0beee7b041194b42d7a9ce1e6 (at C:\Users\veroh\AppData\Roaming\npm\node_modules\@prisma\cli\query-engine-windows.exe)
Migration Engine : migration-engine-cli 2fb8f444d9cdf7c0beee7b041194b42d7a9ce1e6 (at C:\Users\veroh\AppData\Roaming\npm\node_modules\@prisma\cli\migration-engine-windows.exe)
Introspection Engine : introspection-core 2fb8f444d9cdf7c0beee7b041194b42d7a9ce1e6 (at C:\Users\veroh\AppData\Roaming\npm\node_modules\@prisma\cli\introspection-engine-windows.exe)
Format Binary : prisma-fmt 60ba6551f29b17d7d6ce479e5733c70d9c00860e (at node_modules\@prisma\engines\prisma-fmt-windows.exe)
Default Engines Hash : 60ba6551f29b17d7d6ce479e5733c70d9c00860e
Studio : 0.365.0
Output version information as JSON
$prisma version --json
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Environment variables loaded from prisma\.env
{
"prisma": "2.21.0-dev.4",
"@prisma/client": "2.21.0-dev.4",
"current-platform": "windows",
"query-engine": "query-engine 60ba6551f29b17d7d6ce479e5733c70d9c00860e (at node_modules\\@prisma\\engines\\query-engine-windows.exe)",
"migration-engine": "migration-engine-cli 60ba6551f29b17d7d6ce479e5733c70d9c00860e (at node_modules\\@prisma\\engines\\migration-engine-windows.exe)",
"introspection-engine": "introspection-core 60ba6551f29b17d7d6ce479e5733c70d9c00860e (at node_modules\\@prisma\\engines\\introspection-engine-windows.exe)",
"format-binary": "prisma-fmt 60ba6551f29b17d7d6ce479e5733c70d9c00860e (at node_modules\\@prisma\\engines\\prisma-fmt-windows.exe)",
"default-engines-hash": "60ba6551f29b17d7d6ce479e5733c70d9c00860e",
"studio": "0.365.0"
}

init

Bootstraps a fresh Prisma project within the current directory.

The init command does not interpret any existing files. Instead, it creates a prisma directory containing a bare-bones schema.prisma file within your current directory.

Arguments

ArgumentRequiredDescriptionDefault
--datasource-providerNoSpecifies the default value for the provider field in the datasource block - can be sqlite, postgresql, mysql, sqlserver, mongodb (Preview, requires preview flag).postgresql
--urlNoDefine a custom datasource url.

Examples

Run prisma init
$prisma init
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✔ Your Prisma schema was created at prisma/schema.prisma.
You can now open it in your favorite editor.
Next steps:
1. Set the provider of the datasource block in schema.prisma to match your database: postgresql, mysql or sqlite.
2. Set the DATABASE_URL in the .env file to point to your existing database. If your database has no tables yet, read https://pris.ly/d/getting-started.
3. Run prisma db pull to turn your database schema into a Prisma data model.
4. Run prisma generate to install Prisma Client. You can then start querying your database.
More information in our documentation:
https://pris.ly/d/getting-started
Run prisma init --datasource-provider sqlite
$prisma init --datasource-provider sqlite

The command output contains helpful information on how to use the generated files and begin using Prisma with your project.

Generated Assets

prisma/schema.prisma

An initial schema.prisma file to define your schema in:

// This is your Prisma schema file,
// learn more about it in the docs: https://pris.ly/d/prisma-schema
datasource db {
provider = "sqlite"
url = env("DATABASE_URL")
}
generator client {
provider = "prisma-client-js"
}

prisma/.env

A file to define environment variables for your project:

# Environment variables declared in this file are automatically made available to Prisma.
# See the documentation for more detail: https://pris.ly/d/prisma-schema#using-environment-variables
# Prisma supports the native connection string format for PostgreSQL, MySQL, SQLite, SQL Server and MongoDB (Preview).
# See the documentation for all the connection string options: https://pris.ly/d/connection-strings
DATABASE_URL="file:./dev.db"
Run prisma init --url mysql://user:password@localhost:3306/mydb
$prisma init --url mysql://user:password@localhost:3306/mydb

The command output contains helpful information on how to use the generated files and begin using Prisma with your project.

Generated Assets

prisma/schema.prisma

A minimal schema.prisma file to define your schema in:

// This is your Prisma schema file,
// learn more about it in the docs: https://pris.ly/d/prisma-schema
datasource db {
provider = "mysql"
url = env("DATABASE_URL")
}
generator client {
provider = "prisma-client-js"
}

prisma/.env

A file to define environment variables for your project:

# Environment variables declared in this file are automatically made available to Prisma.
# See the documentation for more detail: https://pris.ly/d/prisma-schema#using-environment-variables
# Prisma supports the native connection string format for PostgreSQL, MySQL, SQLite, SQL Server and MongoDB (Preview).
# See the documentation for all the connection string options: https://pris.ly/d/connection-strings
DATABASE_URL="mysql://user:password@localhost:3306/mydb"

generate

The generate command generates assets like Prisma Client based on the generator and data model blocks defined in your prisma/schema.prisma file.

The generate command is most often used to generate Prisma Client with the prisma-client-js generator. This does three things:

  1. Searches the current directory and parent directories to find the applicable npm project. It will create a package.json file in the current directory if it cannot find one.
  2. Installs the @prisma/client into the npm project if it is not already present.
  3. Inspects the current directory to find a Prisma schema file to process. It will then generate a customized Prisma Client for your project.

Prerequisites

To use the generate command, you must add a generator definition in your schema.prisma file. The prisma-client-js generator, used to generate Prisma Client, can be added by including the following in your schema.prisma file:

generator client {
provider = "prisma-client-js"
}

Options

OptionRequiredDescriptionDefault
--watchNoThe generate command will continue to watch the schema.prisma file and re-generate Prisma Client on file changes.

Arguments

ArgumentRequiredDescriptionDefault
--schemaNoSpecifies the path to the desired schema.prisma file to be processed instead of the default path. Both absolute and relative paths are supported../schema.prisma, ./prisma/schema.prisma

Examples

Generate Prisma Client using the default schema.prisma path
$prisma generate
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✔ Generated Prisma Client to ./node_modules/.prisma/client in 61ms
You can now start using Prisma Client in your code:
import { PrismaClient } from '@prisma/client'
// or const { PrismaClient } = require('@prisma/client')
const prisma = new PrismaClient()
Explore the full API: https://pris.ly/d/client
Generate Prisma Client using a non-default schema.prisma path
$prisma generate --schema=./alternative/schema.prisma
Continue watching the schema.prisma file for changes to automatically re-generate Prisma Client
$prisma generate --watch
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Watching... /home/prismauser/prisma/prisma-play/prisma/schema.prisma
✔ Generated Prisma Client to ./node_modules/.prisma/client in 45ms

Generated Assets

The prisma-client-js generator creates a customized client for working with your database within the ./node_modules/.prisma/client directory by default - you can customize the output folder.

introspect

Deprecation warning
From Prisma 3.0.0 onwards, the prisma introspect command is deprecated and replaced with the prisma db pull command.

format

Formats the Prisma schema file, which includes validating, formatting, and persisting the schema.

Arguments

ArgumentRequiredDescriptionDefault
--schemaNoSpecifies the path to the desired schema.prisma file to be processed instead of the default path. Both absolute and relative paths are supported../schema.prisma, ./prisma/schema.prisma

Examples

Validate a schema without errors
$npx prisma format
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Formatting a schema with validation errors
$npx prisma format
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db

db pull

Introspection with the db pull command on the MongoDB connector samples the data instead of reading a schema.

The db pull command connects to your database and adds Prisma models to your Prisma schema that reflect the current database schema.

Warning: The command will overwrite the current schema.prisma file with the new schema. Any manual changes or customization will be lost. Be sure to back up your current schema.prisma file before running db pull if it contains important modifications.

Prerequisites

Before using the db pull command, you must define a valid datasource within your schema.prisma file.

For example, the following datasource defines a SQLite database file within the current directory:

datasource db {
provider = "sqlite"
url = "file:my-database.db"
}

Options

OptionRequiredDescriptionDefault
--forceNoForce overwrite of manual changes made to schema. The generated schema will be based on the introspected schema only.
--printNoPrints the created schema.prisma to the screen instead of writing it to the filesystem.

Arguments

ArgumentRequiredDescriptionDefault
--schemaNoSpecifies the path to the desired schema.prisma file to be processed instead of the default path. Both absolute and relative paths are supported../schema.prisma, ./prisma/schema.prisma

Examples

Analyze the database and write its schema to the schema.prisma file
$prisma db pull
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Introspecting based on datasource defined in schema.prisma …
✔ Wrote Prisma data model into schema.prisma in 38ms
Run prisma generate to generate Prisma Client.
Specify an alternative schema.prisma file to read and write to
$prisma db pull --schema=./alternative/schema.prisma
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Introspecting based on datasource defined in alternative/schema.prisma …
✔ Wrote Prisma data model into alternative/schema.prisma in 60ms
Run prisma generate to generate Prisma Client.
Display the generated schema.prisma file instead of writing it to the filesystem
$prisma db pull --print
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generator client {
provider = "prisma-client-js"
}
datasource db {
provider = "sqlite"
url = "file:./hello-prisma.db"
}
model User {
email String @unique
name String?
user_id Int @id @default(autoincrement())
post Post[]
profile Profile[]
}
model Post {
content String?
post_id Int @id @default(autoincrement())
title String
author User? @relation(fields: [author_id], references: [user_id])
author_id Int?
}
model Profile {
bio String?
profile_id Int @id @default(autoincrement())
user User @relation(fields: [user_id], references: [user_id])
user_id Int
}

db push

MongoDB not supported
db push uses the Migration Engine and does not currently support the MongoDB connector.

The db push command pushes the state of your Prisma schema file to the database without using migrations. It creates the database if the database does not exist.

This command is a good choice when you do not need to version schema changes, such as during prototyping and local development.

See also:

Prerequisites

Before using the db push command, you must define a valid datasource within your schema.prisma file.

For example, the following datasource defines a SQLite database file within the current directory:

datasource db {
provider = "sqlite"
url = "file:my-database.db"
}

Options

OptionsRequiredDescription
--skip-generateNoSkip generation of artifacts such as Prisma Client
--force-resetNoResets the database and then updates the schema - useful if you need to start from scratch due to unexecutable migrations.
--accept-data-lossNoIgnore data loss warnings. This option is required if as a result of making the schema changes, data may be lost.
--help / --hNoDisplays the help message

Arguments

ArgumentRequiredDescriptionDefault
--schemaNoSpecifies the path to the desired schema.prisma file to be processed instead of the default path. Both absolute and relative paths are supported../schema.prisma
./prisma/schema.prisma

Examples

Push the schema:

$npx prisma db push

Push the schema, accepting data loss:

$npx prisma db push --accept-data-loss

Push the schema with a custom schema location:

$npx prisma db push --schema=/tmp/schema.prisma

db seed

db seed changed from Preview to Generally Available (GA) in 3.0.1.

See Seeding your database

Options

OptionsRequiredDescription
--help / --hNoDisplays the help message

Examples

$npx prisma db seed

Prisma Migrate

Prisma Migrate changed from Preview to Generally Available (GA) in 2.19.0.

MongoDB not supported
Prisma Migrate does not currently support the MongoDB connector.

migrate dev

For use in development environments only, requires shadow database

The migrate dev command updates your database using migrations during development and creates the database if it does not exist. See also:

Options

OptionRequiredDescriptionDefault
--create-onlyNoCreates a new migration based on the changes in the schema but does not apply that migration. Run migrate dev to apply migration.
--skip-seedNoSkip triggering seed
--skip-generateNoSkip triggering generators (for example, Prisma Client)
--help / --hNoDisplays the help message

Arguments

ArgumentRequiredDescriptionDefault
--nameNoThe name of the migration. If no name is provided, the CLI will prompt you.
--schemaNoSpecifies the path to the desired schema.prisma file to be processed instead of the default path. Both absolute and relative paths are supported../schema.prisma
./prisma/schema.prisma

Examples

Apply all migrations, then create and apply any new migrations:

$prisma migrate dev

Apply all migrations and create a new migration if there are schema changes, but do not apply it:

$prisma migrate dev --create-only

migrate reset

For use in development environments only

This command deletes and recreates the database, or performs a 'soft reset' by removing all data, tables, indexes, and other artifacts.

Options

OptionRequiredDescriptionDefault
--forceNoSkip the confirmation prompt
--skip-generateNoSkip triggering generators (for example, Prisma Client)
--skip-seedNoSkip triggering seed
--help / --hNoDisplays the help message

Arguments

ArgumentRequiredDescriptionDefault
--schemaNoSpecifies the path to the desired schema.prisma file to be processed instead of the default path. Both absolute and relative paths are supported../schema.prisma
./prisma/schema.prisma

Examples

$prisma migrate reset

migrate deploy

The migrate deploy command applies all pending migrations, and creates the database if it does not exist. Primarily used in non-development environments. This command:

  • Does not look for drift in the database or changes in the Prisma schema
  • Does not reset the database or generate artifacts
  • Does not rely on a shadow database

Options

OptionRequiredDescriptionDefault
--help / --hNoDisplays the help message

Arguments

ArgumentRequiredDescriptionDefault
--schemaNoSpecifies the path to the desired schema.prisma file to be processed instead of the default path. Both absolute and relative paths are supported../schema.prisma
./prisma/schema.prisma

Examples

$prisma migrate deploy

migrate resolve

The migrate resolve command allows you to solve migration history issues in production by marking a migration as already applied (supports baselining) or rolled back.

Options

OptionRequiredDescriptionDefault
--help / --hNoDisplays the help message

Arguments

ArgumentRequiredDescriptionDefault
--appliedNo*Record a specific migration as applied - for example --applied "20201231000000_add_users_table"
--rolled-backNo*Record a specific migration as rolled back - for example --rolled-back "20201231000000_add_users_table"./schema.prisma
./prisma/schema.prisma
--schemaNoSpecifies the path to the desired schema.prisma file to be processed instead of the default path. Both absolute and relative paths are supported../schema.prisma
./prisma/schema.prisma

You must specify either --rolled-back or --applied.

Examples

$prisma migrate resolve --applied 20201231000000_add_users_table
$prisma migrate resolve --rolled-back 20201231000000_add_users_table

migrate status

The prisma migrate status command looks up the migrations in /prisma/migrations/* folder and the entries in the _prisma_migrations table and compiles information about the state of the migrations in your database. For example:

Status
3 migrations found in prisma/migrations
Your local migration history and the migrations table from your database are different:
The last common migration is: 20201127134938_new_migration
The migration have not yet been applied:
20201208100950_test_migration
The migrations from the database are not found locally in prisma/migrations:
20201208100950_new_migration

Options

OptionRequiredDescriptionDefault
--help / --hNoDisplays the help message

Arguments

ArgumentRequiredDescriptionDefault
--schemaNoSpecifies the path to the desired schema.prisma file to be processed instead of the default path. Both absolute and relative paths are supported../schema.prisma
./prisma/schema.prisma

Examples

$prisma migrate status

Studio

studio

The studio command allows you to interact with and manage your data interactively. It does this by starting a local web server with a web app configured with your project's data schema and records.

Prerequisites

Before using the studio command, you must define a valid datasource within your schema.prisma file.

For example, the following datasource defines a SQLite database file within the current directory:

datasource db {
provider = "sqlite"
url = "file:my-database.db"
}

Options

The studio command recognizes the following options:

OptionRequiredDescriptionDefault
-b, --browserNoThe browser to auto-open Studio in.<your-default-browser>
-h, --helpNoShow all available options and exit
-p, --portNoThe port number to start Studio on.5555

Arguments

ArgumentRequiredDescriptionDefault
--schemaNoSpecifies the path to the desired schema.prisma file to be processed instead of the default path. Both absolute and relative paths are supported../schema.prisma
./prisma/schema.prisma

Examples

Start Studio on the default port and open a new browser tab to it

$prisma studio

Start Studio on a different port and open a new browser tab to it

$prisma studio --port 7777

Start Studio and open a Firefox tab to it

$prisma studio --browser firefox

Start Studio without opening a new browser tab to it

$prisma studio --browser none
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