This page explains how to use Prisma Migrate commands in development and production environments.
In a development environment, use the
migrate dev command to generate and apply migrations:
$npx prisma migrate dev
migrate dev is a development command and should never be used in a production environment.
- Reruns the existing migration history in the shadow database in order to detect schema drift (edited or deleted migration file, or a manual changes to the database schema)
- Applies pending migrations to the shadow database (for example, new migrations created by colleagues)
- Generates a new migration from any changes you made to the Prisma schema before running
- Applies all unapplied migrations to the development database and updates the
- Triggers the generation of artifacts (for example, the Prisma Client)
migrate dev command will prompt you to reset the database in the following scenarios:
- Migration history conflicts caused by modified or missing migrations
- The database schema has drifted away from the end-state of the migration history
You can also
reset the database yourself to undo manual changes or
db push experiments by running:
$npx prisma migrate reset
migrate reset is a development command and should never be used in a production environment.
- Drops the database/schema¹ if possible, or performs a soft reset if the environment does not allow deleting databases/schemas¹
- Creates a new database/schema¹ with the same name if the database/schema¹ was dropped
- Applies all migrations
- Runs seed scripts
¹ For MySQL and MongoDB this refers to the database, for PostgreSQL and SQL Server to the schema, and for SQLite to the database file.
Note: For a simple and integrated way to re-create data in your development database as often as needed, check out our seeding guide.
Sometimes, you need to modify a migration before applying it. For example:
- You want to introduce a significant refactor, such as changing blog post tags from a
- You want to rename a field (by default, Prisma Migrate will drop the existing field)
- You want to change the direction of a 1-1 relationship
- You want to add features that cannot be represented in Prisma Schema Language - such as a partial index or a stored procedure.
--create-only command allows you to create a migration without applying it:
$npx prisma migrate dev --create-only
To apply the edited migration, run
prisma migrate dev again.
Refer to Customizing migrations for examples.
In production and testing environments, use the
migrate deploy command to apply migrations:
$npx prisma migrate deploy
migrate deployshould generally be part of an automated CI/CD pipeline, and we do not recommend running this command locally to deploy changes to a production database.
Compares applied migrations against the migration history and warns if any migrations have been modified:WARNING The following migrations have been modified since they were applied:20210313140442_favorite_colors
Applies pending migrations
migrate deploy command:
- Does not issue a warning if an already applied migration is missing from migration history
- Does not detect drift (production database schema differs from migration history end state - for example, due to a hotfix
- Does not reset the database or generate artifacts (such as Prisma Client)
- Does not rely on a shadow database
Prisma Migrate makes use of advisory locking when you run production commands such as:
prisma migrate deploy
prisma migrate resolve
This safeguard ensures that multiple commands cannot run at the same time - for example, if you merge two pull requests in quick succession.
Advisory locking has a 10 second timeout (not configurable), and uses the default advisory locking mechanism available in the underlying provider:
Prisma Migrate's implementation of advisory locking is purely to avoid catastrophic errors - if your command times out, you will need to run it again.