This page describes how to perform CRUD operations with your generated Prisma Client API. CRUD is an acronym that stands for:

Refer to the Prisma Client API reference documentation for detailed explanations of each method.

Example schema

All examples are based on the following schema:

Relational databases
MongoDB
generator client {
provider = "prisma-client-js"
}
datasource db {
provider = "postgresql"
url = env("DATABASE_URL")
}
model ExtendedProfile {
id Int @id @default(autoincrement())
biography String
user User @relation(fields: [userId], references: [id])
userId Int
}
model User {
id Int @id @default(autoincrement())
name String?
email String @unique
profileViews Int @default(0)
role Role @default(USER)
coinflips Boolean[]
posts Post[]
profile ExtendedProfile?
}
model Post {
id Int @id @default(autoincrement())
title String
published Boolean @default(true)
author User @relation(fields: [authorId], references: [id])
authorId Int
comments Json?
views Int @default(0)
likes Int @default(0)
categories Category[]
}
model Category {
id Int @id @default(autoincrement())
name String @unique
posts Post[]
}
enum Role {
USER
ADMIN
}

For relational databases, use db push command to push the example schema to your own database

$npx prisma db push

For MongoDB, ensure your data is in a uniform shape and matches the model defined in the Prisma schema.

Create

Create a single record

The following query creates (create ) a single user with two fields:

const user = await prisma.user.create({
data: {
email: 'elsa@prisma.io',
name: 'Elsa Prisma',
},
})
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The user's id is auto-generated, and your schema determines which fields are mandatory.

Create a single record using generated types

The following example produces an identical result, but creates a UserCreateInput variable named user outside the context of the create query. After completing a simple check (should posts be included in this create query?), the user variable is passed into the query:

import { PrismaClient, Prisma } from '@prisma/client'
const prisma = new PrismaClient()
async function main() {
let includePosts: boolean = false
let user: Prisma.UserCreateInput
// Check if posts should be included in the query
if (includePosts) {
user = {
email: 'elsa@prisma.io',
name: 'Elsa Prisma',
posts: {
create: {
title: 'Include this post!',
},
},
}
} else {
user = {
email: 'elsa@prisma.io',
name: 'Elsa Prisma',
}
}
// Pass 'user' object into query
const createUser = await prisma.user.create({ data: user })
}
main()
.catch(e => {
throw e
})
.finally(async () => {
await prisma.$disconnect()
})

For more information about working with generated types, see: Generated types.

Create multiple records

Prisma Client supports bulk inserts as a GA feature in 2.20.0 and later.

The following createMany query creates multiple users and skips any duplicates (email must be unique):

const createMany = await prisma.user.createMany({
data: [
{ name: 'Bob', email: 'bob@prisma.io' },
{ name: 'Bobo', email: 'bob@prisma.io' }, // Duplicate unique key!
{ name: 'Yewande', email: 'yewande@prisma.io' },
{ name: 'Angelique', email: 'angelique@prisma.io' },
],
skipDuplicates: true, // Skip 'Bobo'
})
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{
count: 3
}

createMany uses a single INSERT INTO statement with multiple values, which is generally more efficient than a separate INSERT per row:

BEGIN
INSERT INTO "public"."User" ("id","name","email","profileViews","role","coinflips","testing","city","country") VALUES (DEFAULT,$1,$2,$3,$4,DEFAULT,DEFAULT,DEFAULT,$5), (DEFAULT,$6,$7,$8,$9,DEFAULT,DEFAULT,DEFAULT,$10), (DEFAULT,$11,$12,$13,$14,DEFAULT,DEFAULT,DEFAULT,$15), (DEFAULT,$16,$17,$18,$19,DEFAULT,DEFAULT,DEFAULT,$20) ON CONFLICT DO NOTHING
COMMIT
SELECT "public"."User"."country", "public"."User"."city", "public"."User"."email", SUM("public"."User"."profileViews"), COUNT(*) FROM "public"."User" WHERE 1=1 GROUP BY "public"."User"."country", "public"."User"."city", "public"."User"."email" HAVING AVG("public"."User"."profileViews") >= $1 ORDER BY "public"."User"."country" ASC OFFSET $2

Note: Multiple create statements inside a $transaction results in multiple INSERT statements.

The following video demonstrates how to use createMany and faker.js to seed a database with sample data:

See Working with relations > Nested writes for information about creating a record and one or more related records at the same time.

Read

Get record by ID or unique identifier

The following queries return a single record (findUnique ) by unique identifier or ID:

// By unique identifier
const user = await prisma.user.findUnique({
where: {
email: 'elsa@prisma.io',
},
})
// By ID
const user = await prisma.user.findUnique({
where: {
id: 99,
},
})

If you are using the MongoDB connector and your underlying ID type is ObjectId, you can use the string representation of that ObjectId:

// By ID
const user = await prisma.user.findUnique({
where: {
id: "60d5922d00581b8f0062e3a8",
},
})

Get record by compound ID or compound unique identifier

MongoDB does not support @@id
MongoDB does not support composite IDs, which means you cannot identify a model with a @@id block. Furthermore, you cannot use a @@unique block as an ID.

The following examples demonstrate how to retrieve records by a compound ID or unique identifier, defined by @@id or @@unique .

The following Prisma model defines a compound ID:

Relational databases only
model TimePeriod {
year Int
quarter Int
total Decimal
@@id([year, quarter])
}

To retrieve a time period by this compound ID, use the generated year_quarter field, which follows the fieldName1_fieldName2 pattern:

Relational databases only
const timePeriod = await prisma.timePeriod.findUnique({
where: {
year_quarter: {
quarter: 4,
year: 2020,
},
},
})

The following Prisma model defines a compound unique identifier with a custom name (timePeriodId)

Relational databases only
model TimePeriod {
year Int
quarter Int
total Decimal
@@unique(fields: [year, quarter], name: "timePeriodId")
}

To retrieve a time period by this unique identifier, use the custom timePeriodId field:

Relational databases only
const timePeriod = await prisma.timePeriod.findUnique({
where: {
timePeriodId: {
quarter: 4,
year: 2020,
},
},
})

Get all records

The following findMany query returns all User records:

const users = await prisma.user.findMany()

You can also paginate your results.

Get the first record that matches a specific criteria

The following findFirst query returns the most recently created user with at least one post that has more than 100 likes:

  1. Order users by ascending ID (largest first) - the largest ID is the most recent
  2. Return the first user in ascending order with at least one post that has more than 100 likes
const findUser = await prisma.user.findFirst({
where: {
posts: {
some: {
likes: {
gt: 100
}
}
}
},
orderBy: {
id: "asc"
}
})
}

Get a filtered list of records

Prisma Client supports filtering on record fields and related record fields.

Filter by a single field value

The following query returns all User records with an email that ends in "prisma.io":

const users = await prisma.user.findMany({
where: {
email: {
endsWith: "prisma.io"
}
},
}

Filter by multiple field values

The following query uses a combination of operators to return users whose name start with E or administrators with at least 1 profile view:

const users = await prisma.user.findMany({
where: {
OR: [
{
name: {
startsWith: 'E',
},
},
{
AND: {
profileViews: {
gt: 0,
},
role: {
equals: 'ADMIN',
},
},
},
],
},
})

The following query returns users with an email that ends with prisma.io and have at least one post (some) that is not published:

const users = await prisma.user.findMany({
where: {
email: {
endsWith: "prisma.io"
},
posts: {
some: {
published: false
}
}
},
}

See Working with relations for more examples of filtering on related field values.

Select a subset of fields

The following findUnique query uses select to return the email and name fields of a specific User record:

const user = await prisma.user.findUnique({
where: {
email: 'emma@prisma.io',
},
select: {
email: true,
name: true,
},
})
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For more information about including relations, refer to:

The following query uses a nested select to return:

  • The user's email
  • The likes field of each post
const user = await prisma.user.findUnique({
where: {
email: 'emma@prisma.io',
},
select: {
email: true,
posts: {
select: {
likes: true,
},
},
},
})
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For more information about including relations, see Select fields and include relations.

Select distinct field values

See Select distinct for information about selecting distinct field values.

The following query returns all ADMIN users and includes each user's posts in the result:

const users = await prisma.user.findMany({
where: {
role: 'ADMIN',
},
include: {
posts: true,
},
})
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For more information about including relations, see Select fields and include relations.

Include a filtered list of relations

See Working with relations to find out how to combine include and where for a filtered list of relations - for example, only include a user's published posts.

Update

Update a single record

The following query uses update to find and update a single User record by email:

const updateUser = await prisma.user.update({
where: {
email: 'viola@prisma.io',
},
data: {
name: 'Viola the Magnificent',
},
})
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Update multiple records

The following query uses updateMany to update all User records that contain prisma.io:

const updateUsers = await prisma.user.updateMany({
where: {
email: {
contains: 'prisma.io',
},
},
data: {
role: 'ADMIN',
},
})
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Update or create records

The following query uses upsert to update a User record with a specific email address, or create that User record if it does not exist:

const upsertUser = await prisma.user.upsert({
where: {
email: 'viola@prisma.io',
},
update: {
name: 'Viola the Magnificent',
},
create: {
email: 'viola@prisma.io',
name: 'Viola the Magnificent',
},
})
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Update a number field

Use atomic number operations to update a number field based on its current value - for example, increment or multiply. The following query increments the views and likes fields by 1:

const updatePosts = await prisma.post.updateMany({
data: {
views: {
increment: 1,
},
likes: {
increment: 1,
},
},
})

Refer to Working with relations for information about disconnecting (disconnect ) and connecting (connect ) related records.

Delete

Delete a single record

The following query uses delete to delete a single User record:

const deleteUser = await prisma.user.delete({
where: {
email: 'bert@prisma.io',
},
})

Attempting to delete a user with one or more posts result in an error, as every Post requires an author - see cascading deletes.

Delete multiple records

The following query uses deleteMany to delete all User records where email contains prisma.io:

const deleteUsers = await prisma.user.deleteMany({
where: {
email: {
contains: 'prisma.io',
},
},
})

Attempting to delete a user with one or more posts result in an error, as every Post requires an author - see cascading deletes.

Delete all records

The following query uses deleteMany to delete all User records:

const deleteUsers = await prisma.user.deleteMany({})

Be aware that this query will fail if the user has any related records (such as posts). In this case, you need to delete the related records first.

In 2.26.0 and later it is possible to do cascading deletes using the preview feature referential actions.

The following query uses delete to delete a single User record:

const deleteUser = await prisma.user.delete({
where: {
email: 'bert@prisma.io',
},
})

However, the example schema includes a required relation between Post and User, which means that you cannot delete a user with posts:

The change you are trying to make would violate the required relation 'PostToUser' between the `Post` and `User` models.

To resolve this error, you can:

  • Make the relation optional:

    model Post {
    id Int @id @default(autoincrement())
    author User? @relation(fields: [authorId], references: [id])
    authorId Int?
    author User @relation(fields: [authorId], references: [id])
    authorId Int
    }
  • Change the author of the posts to another user before deleting the user.

  • Delete a user and all their posts with two separate queries in a transaction (all queries must succeed):

    const deletePosts = prisma.post.deleteMany({
    where: {
    authorId: 7,
    },
    })
    const deleteUser = prisma.user.delete({
    where: {
    id: 7,
    },
    })
    const transaction = await prisma.$transaction([deletePosts, deleteUser])

Delete all records from all tables

Sometimes you want to remove all data from all tables but keep the actual tables. This can be particularly useful in a development environment and whilst testing.

The following shows how to delete all records from all tables with Prisma Client and with Prisma Migrate.

Deleting all data with deleteMany

When you know the order in which your tables should be deleted, you can use the deleteMany function. This is executed synchronously in a $transaction and can be used with all types of databases.

const deletePosts = prisma.post.deleteMany()
const deleteProfile = prisma.profile.deleteMany()
const deleteUsers = prisma.user.deleteMany()
// The transaction runs synchronously so deleteUsers must run last.
await prisma.$transaction([deleteProfile, deletePosts, deleteUsers])

Pros:

  • Works well when you know the structure of your schema ahead of time
  • Synchronously deletes each tables data

Cons:

  • Doesn't scale as well as having a more generic solution which looks up and TRUNCATES your tables regardless of their relational constraints.

Note: The $transaction performs a cascading delete on each models table so they have to be called in order.

Deleting all data with raw SQL / TRUNCATE

If you are comfortable working with raw SQL you can perform a TRUNCATE on a table by utilizing $queryRaw.

In the following examples, the first tab shows how to perform a TRUNCATE on a Postgres database by using a $queryRaw look up that maps over the table and TRUNCATES each table.

The second tab shows performing the same function but with a MySQL database. In this instance the constraints must be removed before the TRUNCATE can be executed, before being reinstated once finished. The whole process is run as a $transaction

PostgreSQL
MySQL
for (const {
tablename,
} of await prisma.$queryRaw`SELECT tablename FROM pg_tables WHERE schemaname='public'`) {
if (tablename !== '_prisma_migrations') {
try {
await prisma.$queryRaw(`TRUNCATE TABLE "public"."${tablename}" CASCADE;`);
} catch (error) {
console.log({error})
}
}
}

Pros:

  • Scalable
  • Very fast

Cons:

  • Can't undo the operation
  • Using reserved SQL key words as tables names can cause issues when trying to run a raw query

Deleting all records with Prisma Migrate

If you use Prisma Migrate, you can use migrate reset, this will:

  1. Drop the database
  2. Create a new database
  3. Apply migrations
  4. Seed the database with data

Advanced query examples

Create a deeply nested tree of records

  • A single User
  • Two new, related Post records
  • Connect or create Category per post
const u = await prisma.user.create({
include: {
posts: {
include: {
categories: true,
},
},
},
data: {
email: 'emma@prisma.io',
posts: {
create: [
{
title: 'My first post',
categories: {
connectOrCreate: [
{
create: { name: 'Introductions' },
where: {
name: 'Introductions',
},
},
{
create: { name: 'Social' },
where: {
name: 'Social',
},
},
],
},
},
{
title: 'How to make cookies',
categories: {
connectOrCreate: [
{
create: { name: 'Social' },
where: {
name: 'Social',
},
},
{
create: { name: 'Cooking' },
where: {
name: 'Cooking',
},
},
],
},
},
],
},
},
})
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